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اصطلاحات حقوقی به انگلیسی با ترجمه فارسی

اصطلاحات حقوقی به انگلیسی با ترجمه فارسی

03/02/30 13 دقیقه برای مطالعه 291

برای اولین بار که در مورد یک مبحث حقوقی صحبت می کردیم، با اصطلاحات و موارد حقوقی مختلفی مواجه شدیم که در نهایت مجبور شدیم با یک وکیل ارتباط برقرار کرده و مطلب نوشته شده به فارسی را متوجه شویم. حالا تصور کنید در یک کشور انگلیسی زبان هستید و باید یک متن حقوقی را به زبان انگلیسی مطالعه کنید. در این شرایط است که زبان عمومی و دامنه لغات عمومی شما نمی تواند کمک چندانی بکند و به همین دلیل باید سطح زبان تخصصی حقوقی خود را بالا ببرید. به همین دلیل امروز در وب سایت کلینیک تخصصی رفیعی قصد داریم برای شما مطالبی در مورد اصطلاحات حقوقی آماده کرده و همراه با هم یک مکالمه در این باره را مورد بررسی قرار دهیم.

 

چرا باید اصطلاحات حقوقی را آموزش ببینیم؟

یکی از اولین مواردی که در کشورهای انگلیسی زبان باید با آن آشنا شوید، حقوق مدنی است. یکی از دلایلی که سبب می شود بسیاری از مهاجرین در روزهای اول با مشکلات زیادی روبرو شوند، عدم دانش حقوقی و تسلط به لغات است که می تواند تا حد زیادی تجربه آن ها در زندگی را تا تحت الشعاع قرار دهد. تقریبا تمامی متون آموزش داخل کشور را در طی 20 سال سابقه خود مورد بررسی قرار داده ام و در نهایت به این نتیجه رسیدم که هیچ کتاب آموزشی، مفاهیم حقوقی را به درستی آموزش نمی دهد. از این رو تصمیم گرفتم یک مطلب جزئی را در این باره آماده کنم تا حداقل کمی در آموزش این مطالب به شما کمک کنم.

 

اصطلاحات فیش حقوقی به انگلیسی

در زبان انگلیسی برای صحبت در مورد فیش حقوقی از اصطلاح payslip استفاده می کنند که بیشتر در بریتیش به کار می رود. ولی در آمریکا و کانادا برای فیش حقوقی از Paycheck استفاده می کنند که کاربرد بسیار جامع تری دارد. 

My monthly pay includes a base salary and additional wages for any overtime worked

حقوق

Salary

After deductions, my take-home pay is significantly less than my gross pay

دستمزد

Wages

Tax withholdings are one of the many deductions listed on my payslip

پرداخت ناخالص

Gross pay

Employees receive various allowances, such as travel or housing, depending on their job roles

پرداخت خالص

Net pay

I often work overtime to earn extra income beyond my regular salary

کسر حقوق

Deductions

The benefits package offered by the company includes health insurance and retirement contributions

مالیات

Tax

Our pay period runs from the 1st to the 15th of each month.

کمک هزینه ها

Allowances

The earnings statement provides a detailed breakdown of income and deductions for the pay period

اضافه کار

Overtime

My year-to-date earnings reflect all the income I've earned since the beginning of the year

مازاد حقوق

Benefits

The payroll department handles all employee payments and deductions

دوره پرداخت

Pay period

The company matches employee contributions to the retirement plan up to 5%

بیانیه درآمد

Earnings statement

I contribute a portion of my salary to the company's pension scheme

 سال تا به امروز

YTD (Year-to-date)

The insurance premiums for my health coverage are deducted from my paycheck

خلاصه سود

Earnings summary

Employees may receive bonuses based on their performance and achievements

حقوق و دستمزد

Payroll

I checked my leave balances and found that I still have three days of vacation time left

کمک های کارفرما

Employer contributions

My monthly pay includes a base salary and additional wages for any overtime worked

کمک های کارکنان

Employee contributions

After deductions, my take-home pay is significantly less than my gross pay

حقوق بازنشستگی

Pension

Tax withholdings are one of the many deductions listed on my payslip

حق بیمه

Insurance premiums

Employees receive various allowances, such as travel or housing, depending on their job roles

جوایز

Bonuses

I often work overtime to earn extra income beyond my regular salary

مرخصی بدون حقوق

Leave balances

 

اصطلاحات انگلیسی حقوق عمومی

The Constitution is the supreme law of the land, outlining the framework of government and protecting individual rights

قانون اساسي

Constitution

A statute is a law enacted by the legislative branch of government

اساسنامه

Statute

Administrative law governs the activities of administrative agencies and their interaction with the public

حقوق اداری

Administrative law

Constitutional law deals with the interpretation and application of the Constitution by the courts

قانون اساسی

Constitutional law

Judicial review allows the judiciary to examine the constitutionality of laws and executive actions

بررسی قضایی

Judicial review

The president issued an executive order to implement a new policy without the need for congressional approval

فرمان اجرایی

Executive order

Regulation refers to rules and directives issued by administrative agencies to carry out laws passed by the legislature

مقررات

Regulation

Administrative agencies, such as the Environmental Protection Agency, are responsible for enforcing regulations within their respective jurisdictions

دستگاه دولتی مسئول اجرایی قوانین خاص

Administrative agency

Due process ensures that individuals are treated fairly and impartially by the legal system, with respect for their rights

روند مقرر

Due process

Equal protection under the law prohibits discrimination and ensures that all individuals are treated equally by the government

حفاظت برابر

Equal protection

Civil rights protect individuals from discrimination and ensure their freedoms and liberties are upheld by the government

حقوق شهروندی

Civil rights

Public policy reflects the collective decisions and actions of government to address societal issues and concerns

سیاست عمومی

Public policy

Sovereign immunity protects the government from being sued without its consent, except in specific circumstances

مصونیت حاکمیتی

Sovereign immunity

Jurisdiction refers to the authority of a court to hear and decide a case within a defined geographic area or subject matter

صلاحیت قضایی

Jurisdiction

Separation of powers divides governmental authority among three branches – legislative, executive, and judicial – to prevent the concentration of power

جدایی قدرت ها

Separation of powers

Federalism divides power between the national government and state governments, ensuring a balance of authority

فدرالیسم

Federalism

Precedent is a legal principle established by a court decision that serves as a guide for future cases with similar circumstances

سابقه

Precedent

Civil liberties are fundamental rights and freedoms protected by law, such as freedom of speech and religion

آزادی های مدنی

Civil liberties

The public interest refers to the common good or welfare of the general population, which government policies should aim to serve

منافع عمومی

Public interest

Eminent domain allows the government to take private property for public use, with fair compensation to the owner

دامنه برجسته

Eminent domain

The legislative branch is responsible for drafting and enacting public law

قانون عمومی

Public law

 

قوه مقننه

Legislative branch

The executive branch executes and enforces public law enacted by the legislature

قوه مجریه

Executive branch

The judicial branch interprets and applies public law, ensuring its constitutionality

شعبه قضایی

Judicial branch

Parliamentary sovereignty grants the legislative branch supreme authority within its jurisdiction

حاکمیت پارلمانی

Parliamentary sovereignty

The Bill of Rights protects fundamental freedoms such as freedom of speech and religion

منشور حقوق

Bill of Rights

Freedom of speech is a cornerstone of democracy protected by public law

آزادی بیان

Freedom of speech

Freedom of religion ensures individuals can practice their faith without government interference

آزادی مذهب

Freedom of religion

Separation of powers divides governmental authority among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches

جدایی قدرت ها

Separation of powers

Checks and balances prevent any one branch of government from exerting too much power

چک و تعادل

Checks and balances

Habeas corpus safeguards against unlawful detention, ensuring individuals can challenge their imprisonment

قرار احضار زندانی

Habeas corpus

Administrative procedure outlines the steps agencies must follow when creating regulations

رویه اداری

Administrative procedure

Regulatory agencies enforce public law by overseeing compliance with regulations

آژانس تنظیم مقررات

Regulatory agency

Constitutional conventions inform the interpretation and evolution of constitutional principles

کنوانسیون قانون اساسی

Constitutional convention

Legal precedent guides courts in interpreting public law and resolving legal disputes

سابقه قانونی

Legal precedent

Statutory interpretation involves courts interpreting the meaning of laws passed by the legislature

تفسیر قانونی

Statutory interpretation

Public administration implements and manages public policies and programs

مدیریت دولتی

Public administration

Administrative discretion allows agencies to make decisions within the scope of their authority

صلاحدید اداری

Administrative discretion

Civil law governs disputes between individuals or entities concerning private rights and obligations

قانون مدنی

Civil law

Criminal law addresses offenses against the public and imposes penalties for unlawful behavior

قانون کیفری

Criminal law

International law regulates relations between states and promotes human rights and cooperation

قانون بین المللی

International law

Human rights are fundamental freedoms and protections inherent to all individuals, regardless of their nationality, ethnicity, or background

حقوق بشر

Human rights

Legal pluralism recognizes the coexistence of multiple legal systems or sources of law within a society

پلورالیسم حقوقی

Legal pluralism

Legal positivism posits that the validity of law is based on its enactment by a legitimate authority, rather than its moral content

پوزیتیویسم حقوقی

Legal positivism

The rule of law ensures that laws are applied uniformly and fairly, and that government power is exercised within legal constraints

حکم قانون

Rule of law

The public trust doctrine mandates that natural resources and certain assets be managed for the benefit of the public and future generations

دکترین اعتماد عمومی

Public trust doctrine

Legal standing refers to the legal right of an individual or entity to bring a lawsuit or challenge in court

جایگاه قانونی

Legal standing

Judicial activism involves judges interpreting the law broadly to address social or political issues and effectuate change

فعالیت قضایی

Judicial activism

Judicial restraint is the practice of judges limiting their rulings to the strict interpretation of the law and avoiding activism

محدودیت قضایی

Judicial restraint

Administrative adjudication is the process by which administrative agencies resolve disputes and make decisions through quasi-judicial proceedings

قضاوت اداری

Administrative adjudication

 

واژگان مرتبط با اصطلاحات حقوقی به انگلیسی

The plaintiff filed a lawsuit against the defendant for breach of contract

شاکی

Plaintiff

The petitioner is seeking a court order to stop the construction project

مدافع

Defendant

The respondent denies all allegations made by the petitioner

دادخواه، شاکی

Petitioner

The prosecutor presented compelling evidence to the jury during the trial

خوانده

Respondent

The defense attorney cross-examined the witness to challenge their testimony

دادستان

Prosecutor

The judge issued a verdict of guilty after carefully considering all the evidence

وکیل مدافع

Defense attorney

The defendant plans to appeal the verdict to a higher court

قاضی

Judge

The judge set bail at $50,000 for the accused pending trial

هیئت داوران

Jury

The court sentenced the defendant to five years of probation for the crime

شاهد

Witness

After serving ten years in prison, the inmate was granted parole

شهادت

Testimony

The witness was served with a subpoena to testify in court

شواهد و مدارک

Evidence

The police obtained a warrant to search the suspect's property

حکم

Verdict

The parties reached a settlement agreement outside of court

درخواست

Appeal

The court issued an injunction to halt the construction project

وثیقه

Bail

The attorney conducted a deposition to gather evidence for the trial

تحت مراقبت

Probation

The defendant was held in contempt of court for disrupting the proceedings

آزادی مشروط

Parole

The victim sued the perpetrator for damages resulting from the tort

احضاریه

Subpoena

The parties signed a contract outlining the terms of their agreement

حکم

Warrant

The dispute was resolved through arbitration rather than litigation

توافق

Settlement

The defendant admitted liability for the accident due to negligence

دستور

Injunction

The plaintiff accused the defendant of fraud in their business dealings

گواهی

Deposition

The breach of contract resulted in financial losses for both parties

اهانت به دادگاه

Contempt of court

A lien was placed on the property to secure payment of the debt

جرم

Tort

The executor distributed the assets of the estate according to the will

قرارداد

Contract

The trust ensures that the beneficiaries receive their inheritance

داوری

Arbitration

The defendant pleaded guilty to the charges of conspiracy

خسارات

Damages

The court has jurisdiction over cases involving residents of the county

مسئولیت

Liability

During discovery, both parties exchange relevant information and evidence

غفلت

Negligence

The complaint alleges that the defendant breached their contractual obligations

تقلب

Fraud

The defendant failed to appear in court, resulting in a default judgment

نقض قرارداد

Breach of contract

The grand jury issued an indictment charging the suspect with murder

حق رهن، گرو

Lien

The defendant agreed to a plea bargain in exchange for a reduced sentence

املاک

Estate

The defendant claimed to have an alibi for the time of the crime

اعتماد کنید

Trust

The employee was convicted of embezzlement for stealing company funds

مجری

Executor

The defendant was found guilty of perjury for lying under oath

ذینفع

Beneficiary

The plaintiff filed a lawsuit against the defendant for breach of contract

بی ارث

Intestate

The petitioner is seeking a court order to stop the construction project

صلاحیت قضایی

Jurisdiction

The respondent denies all allegations made by the petitioner

کشف

Discovery

The prosecutor presented compelling evidence to the jury during the trial

درخواستها

Pleadings

The defense attorney cross-examined the witness to challenge their testimony

شکایت

Complaint

The judge issued a verdict of guilty after carefully considering all the evidence

احضار می کند

Summons

The defendant plans to appeal the verdict to a higher court

قضاوت پیش فرض

Default judgment

The judge set bail at $50,000 for the accused pending trial

اعلام جرم

Indictment

The court sentenced the defendant to five years of probation for the crime

توافق نامه

Plea bargain

After serving ten years in prison, the inmate was granted parole

علیبی

Alibi

The witness was served with a subpoena to testify in court

اختلاس

Embezzlement

The police obtained a warrant to search the suspect's property

توطئه

Conspiracy

The parties reached a settlement agreement outside of court

قانون محدودیتها

Statute of limitations

The court issued an injunction to halt the construction project

استرداد مجرم

Extradition

The attorney conducted a deposition to gather evidence for the trial

شهادت دروغ

Perjury

 

متن حقوقی به انگلیسی

"In the case of Smith v. Jones, the plaintiff, Mr. Smith, alleges that the defendant, Mr. Jones, breached their contract by failing to deliver the agreed-upon goods by the specified deadline. Mr. Smith contends that this breach resulted in significant financial losses for his business. In response, Mr. Jones denies any wrongdoing, asserting that unforeseen circumstances beyond his control prevented timely delivery. The court has scheduled a hearing to review the evidence presented by both parties and to determine whether Mr. Jones is liable for damages. The plaintiff seeks compensatory relief through monetary damages to remedy the losses incurred. The defendant intends to vigorously defend his position, citing the absence of culpability and mitigating circumstances. Legal counsel for both parties will present arguments and witness testimony to support their respective positions before the court renders its verdict

 

در پرونده اسمیت علیه جونز، شاکی، آقای اسمیت، مدعی است که متهم، آقای جونز، با عدم تحویل کالاهای مورد توافق در مهلت تعیین شده، قرارداد خود را نقض کرده است. آقای اسمیت ادعا می کند که این نقض منجر به زیان مالی قابل توجهی برای تجارت او شده است. در پاسخ، آقای جونز هر گونه تخلفی را رد کرده و تاکید می‌کند که شرایط غیرقابل پیش‌بینی خارج از کنترل او مانع از تحویل به موقع می‌شود. دادگاه برای بررسی مدارک ارائه شده توسط هر دو طرف و تعیین اینکه آیا آقای جونز مسئول خسارت است یا خیر، جلسه ای را تعیین کرده است. خواهان برای جبران خسارات وارده تقاضای جبران خسارت در قالب خسارت مالی دارد. متهم قصد دارد با استناد به فقدان تقصیر و جهات مخففه، قاطعانه از موضع خود دفاع کند. وکیل حقوقی هر دو طرف قبل از صدور رأی دادگاه، دلایل و شهادت شهود را برای حمایت از مواضع خود ارائه می کند.

 

مکالمه ای در مورد مطلب حقوقی 

 

Alice: Hi Bob, I heard you're dealing with some legal issues. What's going on

 

Bob: Hi Alice, yeah, I'm in a bit of a bind. My landlord is trying to evict me, claiming I haven't paid rent for the past two months

 

Alice: That sounds stressful. Have you spoken with a lawyer about it

 

Bob: Not yet. I'm not sure if I can afford one, to be honest. But I've been doing some research online about tenant rights and eviction procedures

 

Alice: It's definitely important to know your rights. But sometimes, having a legal expert on your side can make a big difference, especially in complicated situations like this

 

Bob: Yeah, you're probably right. I'll look into finding a lawyer who offers free consultations or works on a sliding scale fee basis

 

Alice: That's a good idea. And in the meantime, make sure to document everything – your rent payments, any communications with the landlord, and any issues with the property that might have led to this situation

 

Bob: Will do. Thanks for the advice, Alice. It's good to have a friend who knows about legal stuff

 

Alice: Of course, happy to help. And remember, if things get too overwhelming, there are also legal aid organizations that offer assistance to people in situations like yours

 

Bob: Thanks, Alice. I'll keep that in mind

 

کلینیک تخصصی رفیعی همراه شما در تدریس زبان انگلیسی

ما در کلینیک تخصصی رفیعی همیشه بر آن هستیم بهترین روش های تدریس متون عمومی و تخصصی را در اختیار شما قرار دهیم. در صورتی که قصد دارید یادگیری زبان انگلیسی را به صورت تخصصی دنبال کنید، پیشنهاد می کنیم دوره جامع زبان انگلیسی ما را به صورت دقیق بررسی کنید. 

 

مطالب مرتبط: 

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